Supercomputers






I INTRODUCTION Supercomputer, computer designed to perform calculations as fast as current technology allows and used to solve extremely complex problems. Supercomputers are used to design automobiles, aircraft, and spacecraft; to forecast the weather and global climate; to design new drugs and chemical compounds; and to make calculations that help scientists understand the properties of particles that make […]

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Alan Turing






Alan Turing (1912-1954), British mathematician considered one of the most important founders of computer science and artificial intelligence. He was the first to describe in detail a machine that could carry out mathematical operations and solve equations. His work brought together symbolic logic, numerical analysis, electrical engineering, and a mechanical vision of human thought processes. […]

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Automata Theory






I   INTRODUCTION Automata Theory, concept that describes how machines mimic human behavior. The theory proposes that human physical functions and behavior can be simulated by a mechanical or computer-controlled device. Applications of automata theory have included imitating human comprehension and reasoning skills using computer programs, duplicating the function of muscles and tendons by hydraulic systems or electric […]

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Algorithm






Algorithm, in mathematics, method of solving a problem by repeatedly using a simpler computational method. A basic example is the process of long division in arithmetic. The term algorithm is now applied to many kinds of problem solving that employ a mechanical sequence of steps, as in setting up a computer program. The sequence may […]

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Electronic Games






I   INTRODUCTION Xbox 360 Microsoft released the Xbox 360 video-game console in late 2005. The system allows users not only to play games but also to join online communities, compete against other players over the Internet, play movies and music, and connect with digital cameras and other portable electronic devices. Courtesy of Microsoft Electronic […]

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Neural Network






I   INTRODUCTION Artificial Neural Network The neural networks that are increasingly being used in computing mimic those found in the nervous systems of vertebrates. The main characteristic of a biological neural network, top, is that each neuron, or nerve cell, receives signals from many other neurons through its branching dendrites. The neuron produces an […]

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Prolog






PROLOG, in computer science, an acronym for programming in logic, a computer programming language important in the development of artificial intelligence software during the 1970s and 1980s. Unlike traditional programming languages, which process only numerical data and instructions, PROLOG processes symbols and relationships. It is designed to perform search functions that establish relationships within a […]

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Operating System






I   INTRODUCTION An Operating System Interface A screen shot from the Windows XP operating system displays icons and other images typical of the graphical user interface (GUI) that makes computers easy to use. With a GUI, a computer user can easily execute commands by clicking on pictures, words, or icons with a pointing device […]

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