Contribution of Computer Technology in Medical Science
Contribution of Computer Technology in Medical Science – With the invention of computers, the medical facilities ranging from X-Ray to DNA testing has become easier and efficient. The technology and Medicine build up a close tie for more than a century. Earlier computers were used for filling up records but now it is used beyond administrative works. In this article we will emphasis on medical science inventions and linkage with technology from Pre-Computer era to Post PC era. We will divide the period into three Eras – Pre-Computer Era, Early Computer Era and Post PC era. We will account inventions of medical technology starting from 1890 to 2012.
Medical Science Inventions before Computers
In 1895 – Wilhelm Rontgen had invented X-ray imaging machine commonly used for scanning bones.
In 1911 – Willem Einthoven developed the String Galvanometer, which was used to measure heart rhythms by detecting electrical impulses.
In 1920 – Allred Cohn has developed Strap on electrodes for EKG machine.
In 1924 – Psychiatrist Hans Berger recorded the first human electroencephalogram (EEGs)
In 1931 – The Electron microscope was invented by a German Physicist.
In 1937 – Popular Scientist Arne Tiselius published a paper on electrophoresis, where electric field is used to separate molecules in a substance.
In 1941 – Donald Sproule had developed an instrument that uses pulses of ultrasonic waves for medical imaging.
Medical Science Inventions in early computer era
In 1952 – Member of Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) created the Professional Group on Medical Electronics.
In 1958 – First time Dr. Hubert Pipberger used computers to analyze data from EKG Machine.
In 1959 – Robert ledley proposed using computer to help in diagnosis and treatment. He later develops the first full body CT Scanner.
In 1960 – The Advisory Committee on Computers in Research (ACCR) was formed to promote the use of computers in biomedical applications.
In 1962 – The MIT Lincoln Laboratory demonstrates the new Laboratory Instrument Computer (LINC)
In 1965 – Stanford University team developed the artificial intelligence project Dendral to identify unknown organic molecules.
In 1972 – The University of Pittsburg develops an experimental artificial intelligence program called Internist, based off the expertise of the chairman of Internal medicine.
Medical Science Inventions in Post PC ERA
In 1991 – In Shaftesbury hospital in London, a robot carried out a surgical operation under control of computer. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) had published the Computer based Patient Record.
In 2000 – The Pande Laboratory in Stanford University launched the folding@home project, which uses idle processing resources to study protein folding.
In 2001 – Medical Professionals begin to use handheld computers for admin use at hospital and other facilities.
In 2003 – Doctors perform the first virtual Colonoscopy with the help of CT scanners and computer graphics.
In 2004 – IBM launches the world community grid, which searches for genetic markers for diseases.
In 2012 – IBM formed Watson HealthCare Advisory Board. They used Watson, the artificial intelligent computer “Jeopardy” Champion as a medical analytical engine.