Skip to main content

4 D Four Dimensional Printing Technology

4 D Four Dimensional Printing Technology



4 D Four Dimensional Printing Technology - It is the type of printing whose properties advances the technique used in 3D Printing. It uses the same technique of 3D printing with advance properties of Bio printing, active origami or shape-morphing systems. 4D printing is originally based on stereolithographic, where ultraviolet light is used to cure the layered materials after the printing process has been completed. 4D printing is a relatively new advance technology in bio fabrication technology, which rapidly emerging as a new ideas for sectors like bioengineering, materials science, chemistry and computer sciences. The objective is that objects made self-assemble when being exposed to air, heat or water, this is caused by a chemical reaction due to the materials utilised in the manufacturing process.


What are the Techniques used in 4D Printing?




  1. Stereolithographic

  2. Photo polymerization – it is used to bind substrate that has been laid layer upon layer creating a polymeric network.

  3. Fibre networks – In order to achieve scale design it uses complex molecular/fiber simulations that aggregate the material properties of the substance. This is helpful to accommodate size, shape, modulus and pattern of the material building blocks.

  4. Stress Relaxation – it is the process in which the material is kept in stress that is stored temporarily and later released causing a overall material shape change.



What are the application areas of 4D Printings?



  1. Transportation – It is helpful in self-healing the potholes on roads.

  2. Home appliances application areas – assemble of plastic items.

  3. Health – Possibly insert implants in to human body, which self-deform to a plan when inserted with surgical interventions; stem cells to print slices of liver and other organs.

  4. Food – 4D printing in various ways will be helpful in no of techniques.

  5. Clothing – helpful for military wear cloths which accommodate itself from external atmospheric conditions.

  6. Architecture application areas.

Popular posts from this blog

Fix Windows could not find a driver for your network adapter error

Fix Windows could not find a driver for your network adapter error


A Computer run smoothly with the coordination of Software & Hardware. In the absence of any one it will not run at all. Software being the Master utilizes each hardware attached to the System. And each hardware is operated with the help of Device Drivers installed in it. Operating System (OS) uses these device drivers to control & utilize each hardware when needed. Each hardware connected to the system must have their own Device Driver installed. A device driver is a program to initiate a hardware when required by Operating System.




Suppose, you want your PC to connect to the Network, it can only be possible when your PC has network related Device Driver. These Device Drivers are easily downloaded from Manufacturer Websites. In this article we focus on Network related problem. Suppose, your PC not obtaining Network connectivity. And each time you are getting an error message saying "Windows could not find a d…

Fix This Site Can’t Be Loaded from The Cache Chrome Error

Fix This Site Can't Be Loaded from The Cache Chrome Error


This Site Can’t Be Loaded from The Cache - Today, there are several browsers available with extensive features on it. Each browser has its own importance and working principle. Some of the popular browsers available online are Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera Mini, Internet Explorer, UC Browser, Safari, Microsoft Edge, Swift fox etc. The popularity of these browsers depends upon the features available in it.

Among them Google Chrome is the newest and mostly used browser around the world. Holding lots of feature make it more complex and hence more prone to errors. The types of error come up with the level of complexity of the program. If you are Chrome user and facing one of such error then read the full article. In this article, we focus on an error saying "This site can't be loaded from the cache". The explanation included with this error will be "The saved (cached) copy of this site was unreadable&qu…

Change Facebook Profile Picture Leaving All Unknown

Change Facebook Profile Picture Leaving All Unknown


Change Facebook Profile Picture Leaving All Unknown - Today, we spend lots of time in Social media platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, Skype, YouTube, Twitter etc. We love to share Images & Videos with our friends via these platforms. These applications are largely used on Smartphones. We need to download concerned apps from inbuilt software, Play Store in Android Platform.


After downloading the App, we create an ideal account with a profile picture. We join the network by sending friend request. When request is accepted, we are added to such a community. In this article we take a close look on Facebook. Facebook is vastly used all around the world. Two person residing miles away can also share their views easily.

Change Facebook Profile Picture Leaving All Unknown

Whenever we open Facebook, lots of Images & Videos are seen with gentle scroll. In this article we focus on an interesting thing say Profile Picture. In F…