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How to Fix Sound Problem in Windows

How to Fix Sound Problem in Windows


How to Fix Sound Problem in Windows - In Windows System, Several issues are found related to Sound or Audio by the users. All such issues can be fixed by the user without the help of Technician. Here we advised few methods or steps which should be followed to counter all such issues related to sound or audio problems. There are few methods which should be opted by the user to solve their problem.


Techniques to handle Sound Problem in Windows




Run Troubleshooter – This is the method which can solve the problem automatically. This is the primary method which should be opted by the user first. After wards if problem persists go for second option.

Path: Start > Troubleshoot > Playing Audio > Run the Troubleshooter


Check Device Manager – Device manager for this will be audio driver. Here the audio driver is checked, uninstalled and reinstalled. If this method does not work, go to manufacture's website and follow their instructions.

Path to Access –…

How to Backup & Restore Computer Files?

How to Backup & Restore Computer Files?


How to Backup & Restore Computer Files? - Backup Computer Files – It is the process of copying or archiving of computer data so that it can be restored the original content after data lost due to data deletion or corruption. In Windows Operating System this Backup technique useful for users in order to maintain the consistency of operations in computer. Here we present before you the methods which are obeyed in respect of data backup into the computer system. After all set, the original data will be backed up every hour.


Computer Files Backup Methodologies



Go to Start Button and Select Settings

Then go to Update & Security option.

Go to Backup option and select Add a drive option.

Then the user have to choose the destination where backups are stored.

For more manipulation we may also select "More Options".



Path for Computer Files Backup Method


Start > Settings > Update & Setting > Backup > Add a drive > Choose Des…

Printer Problem and Solutions in Window 10

Printer Problem and Solutions in Window 10


Printer Problem and Solutions in Window 10 - Sometimes Window 10 user faces difficulty in accessing Printer connected to the computer or laptop. In this article we will see few steps which should be followed in order to fix printer problems. There are mainly two types of steps which should be followed by the user – Troubleshooting and Advanced Steps. Before going through these steps we must check some basic points.


Please make sure your printer cable is plugged into the power supply and switched on. In case of wired printer check the USB Connection and in case of wireless printers check the wireless connection. Now if the basic steps does not worked out. Follow the Troubleshooting methods which are shown below.



Download and Run the "Printing troubleshooter" application.

If the first step does not work, now you may need to download new Printer driver. Go to Start button followed by Device Manager.

Now expand the printers, find your printe…

Encrypt a File in Window 10 PC

Encrypt a File in Window 10 PC


Encrypt a File in Window 10 PC - Sometimes files stored in Hard Disk or other storage device damages or become victim of theft by hackers. In such cases encryption of file is proved to be fruitful for the security point of view. Here we discuss regarding methods or steps to encrypt a file in window 10 PC. The steps are so easy to follow by the users, in order to encrypt a file.


The simple steps to encrypt a file is illustrated below –



First of all go to the file which we want to encrypt.

Right click the file or folder and select properties.

Then Select the advanced button and check box "Encrypt contents of secure data".

Select OK to close the advanced attributes window. Select Apply and press ok.



Some facts regarding Encryption of file in computer system


Encryption is the conversion of electronic data into another form such that it cannot be easily understood by anyone except authorized sender and receiver. The concept of Encryption came from cryptogra…

How to Use PC as Mobile Hotspot?

How to Use PC as Mobile Hotspot?


How to Use PC as Mobile Hotspot? - We have generally seen people using Mobile Hotspot to download Movie, Songs; Chatting using Facebook, Using WhatsApp and other Internet Uses. With one mobile network more and more user can access the internet connectivity. But here we present before you a new technique by which a PC or Laptop can be used as a Mobile Hotspot. This features in basically available in Window 10 PC. So it is easy to share your internet connection of PC with other devices over WIFI. If your PC has cellular data connection you can also share it with other devices. The settings should be done to both Window 10 PC and Users Device Settings. The steps which a user has to do in order to make Window 10 PC into a mobile hotspot are given below---


Window 10 PC Settings:



Switch On your Window 10 PC and Click on the Start button.

Then go to Settings followed by Network & Internet and then Mobile hotspot.

From Share My Internet connection, select the i…

How to Solve WI-FI Problems in Window 10 PC

How to Solve WI-FI Problems in Window 10 PC


How to Solve WI-FI Problems in Window 10 PC - If your Window 10 PC Wi-Fi is not working or just slow down, then there is no need to frustrated and get tense. What you need to do is to follow some steps or tools to counter the Wi-Fi error. There are different types of settings which exists in Window 10 Wi-Fi system. But you have to follow things step by step, which are mentioned in this article. In order to fix the WIFI problem, first try the basic steps. If problem persists follow the advanced steps, which are elaborated below.


The Types of Problem which generally occurs in WIFI



Wi-Fi icon do not show connected.

Cant connect to Wi-Fi from everywhere in your house

Internet is too slow.

Fluctuation of Connections



Basic steps to Fix WIFI errors in Window 10 PC



Make sure Wi-Fi is on.

Make sure the physical Wi-Fi switch on your laptop is turned on.

Turn off Airplane mode if it is on.

Move closer to the access point (Router)

Use the network troubleshooter – A…

Dark Web Technique to Hide Website Identity

Dark Web Technique to Hide Website Identity


Dark Web Technique to Hide Website Identity - The Dark Web is the part of World Wide Web content which are not indexed by the search engines or traditional brewers. In simple terms we can say the list of website which are not indexed by search engine and can only be seen by writing URL address. The contents of this website can only be accessed by downloading specific software or by using authorization code. It is the small part of deep web. The special markets which uses dark web for selling drugs, firearms, other illegal things and pay using cryptocurrency bitcoin. It is the best place criminals, terrorists, Paedophile group to share information and stay hidden online from governments and law enforcement agencies.


How to access the Dark Web Network?


There are no of ways to access the hidden dark web network. The user has to download software or use hardware to access the dark web. Some of them are – TOR, Freenet and I2P (Invisible Internet Pro…

Cipher algorithm in Cryptography

Cipher algorithm in Cryptography


Cipher algorithm in Cryptography - Cipher is an algorithm or procedure for creating encryption or decryption code used in Cryptography. It is a series of steps that can be followed to creating codes. It is a method of transforming a message to conceal its meaning. TLS/SSL specification defines many possible ciphers which can be used to encrypt data. A cipher is where a message is made by substituting one symbol for a letter. The common types of cipher are Alphabet Ciphers, Math based ciphers, Null Cipher, Substitution cipher, Transposition cipher, Playfair cipher, Running key cipher and others.


What are the Popular Types of Cipher?



Pigpen Cipher – It is a very simple substitution cipher. It was used in the 18th century. It is also called as masonic cipher. It is also called as Tic-Tac-Toe cipher. The letters of the alphabet are replaced by fragments of a geometrical grid.

Ceasar Cipher – It is a substitution cipher where letters are substituted by a letter…

Intranet Private Network Principle

Intranet Private Network Principle


Intranet Private Network Principle - Intranet is a private network being accessible by member or employees of an organisation or firm. It may be interlinked with many local area networks (LAN) or Wide area Network (WAN). It is used to share information with the organisations members or employees. It follow special TCP/IP protocols/ HTTP being administered by the concerned organisation or firm. An intranet can also be used to facilitate working in groups and for Tele-Conferences. When part of an intranet is made accessible to customers, partners, suppliers, or others outside the company, that becomes part of an extranet.


What are the uses of Intranet?



Collaboration to facilitate group work and teleconferencing.

Used by Corporates to discuss key issues like productivity, quality or confidential tasks.

Large business administrators use intranet for public messaging social contacts etc.

Business can share private message or confidential tasks with the intranet…

Worm Self Replicating Computer Program

Worm Self Replicating Computer Program


Worm Self Replicating Computer Program - Computer Worm is a program which replicates itself and spread from one computer to another. Computer worms are among the most common types of malware. Computer worms may replicate themselves to other computers across network, through email, an infected Web page or instant messaging system. Worms always cause harm to the network by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses may corrupt or modify files on a computer. A computer worm infection spreads without user interaction. Computer worms are classified as a type of computer virus, but there are several characteristics that distinguish computer worms from regular viruses.


What are the Symptoms of Computer Worm?



Slow computer speed and performance

Showing Firewall warnings

Appearance of strange/unintended desktop files or icons

Operating system errors and system error messages

Irregular web browser performance

Program running automatically

Crashing/ Freezing

Files missing …

Cryptography Encryption Technique Concept

Cryptography Encryption Technique Concept


Cryptography Encryption Technique Concept - Encryption is the conversion of electronic data into another form such that it cannot be easily understood by anyone except authorized sender and receiver. The concept of Encryption came from cryptographic technology. The main function of encryption is to protect confidential data which are transferred from sender to receiver on internet media. Today encryption technique or algorithm play a vital role in security assurance of in internet media. The encryption technique possess authenticity, integrity and Non – repudiation. The purpose of data encryption is to protect digital data confidentiality as it is stored on computer systems and transmitted using the internet or other computer networks.


How Encryption Technique Works?


The confidential data or say plaintext is encrypted using encryption algorithm to form Cipher text that can be read only if it is decrypted. The cipher text with message transferred …

Trojan horse Malicious Computer Program

Trojan horse Malicious Computer Program


Trojan horse Malicious Computer Program - Trojan horse is a malicious computer program used to achieve unauthorised access into a computer system by misleading the user of its original contents. Trojan horses do not have the ability to replicate themselves like viruses. Trojan horses can help attacker to turn a computer into a zombie and steal various data such as credit card information, installing unwanted software, keylogging and others. The Ransomware attacks (found recently), which restrict access to data until a ransom is paid—are usually carried out using a Trojan only.


What are the destructions caused by Trojan horse?



Block features of antivirus program.

It can destroy all contents in a disk drive.

Spread malware across the network.

It results in data corruptions

It results in Crashing the computer or peripheral device

It can block any installation program

It may spy on user daily activity and sensitive information.



What are the Types of Trojan ho…

Firewall Network Security System

Firewall Network Security System


Firewall Network Security System - The Computer Firewall is a Network Security System that which check incoming and outgoing network traffic according to predefined security rules. It also acts as a filter which monitor data leaving and entering into the host computer. Its main job is to block unauthorised access and unwanted traffic entering inside the computer system. The concept of firewall technology raised in late 1980s when Internet technology was fairly new one for the world. Computer firewall can be in the form of Hardware or software or both. The software firewall is a program which are used on a single computer or home computer or office computer. Some of the software firewall are – Zone alarm, Sygate and kerio. Hardware firewall also contain software components to protect from unauthorised access. Some of the Hardware firewall are – Linksys, D-link and Netgear.


What are the Characteristics of Firewall in Computers?



The fire wall block messages …

VIM ViIMproved Text Editor Program

VIM ViIMproved Text Editor Program


VIM ViIMproved Text Editor Program - The Full form of VIM is "ViIMproved. VIM is a text editor program or Interface used in Unix Operating System. It is similar to Bill Joy's vi text editor. It was developed by Bram Moolenaar in 1988. The first release was VIM 1.14 in 2 Nov 1991. The language was written in C & Vim Script. The Operating System which supports VIM Text Editor was UNIX, Linux, Windows NT, MacOS, iOS, Android and Amiga OS. The VIM Editor include many language as per our need like English, French, Russian, Spanish, German, Italian, Persian etc. VIM was designed for both Command line Interface and Graphical User Interface.


What is VIM Script?


It is the scripting language embedded into VIM. The early version. VIM Script is mostly written in an imperative programming style. It also supports advance data type such as lists.


The VIM program uses multiple Commands called as VIM Editor Commands. Vim is an editor to create or edit a text…

PILOT Programming Language Concepts

PILOT Programming Language Concepts


PILOT Programming Language Concepts - The full form of PILOT programming language is Programmed Instruction Learning or Teaching, which was developed in 1960. Pilot language was developed by John Amsden Starkweather, who was a Psychology Professor at University of California, San Francisco. LOGO is the younger sibling of PILOT programming language.


Syntax of PILOT Programming language


The pilot language code contains few important syntax such as –



An optional label – It is alone in a line, not followed by other code.

A command letter – It consist letter for initiation in program, where each letter is uniquely declared. Like R for indicating a remark for comment.

An optional Y or N (Where Y is Yes and N is No)

A conditional expressions within the parenthesis.

A colon – "…….."

One or more operand delimited by commas.



Some facts regarding Command Letters


The command letter are used in Core Pilot to declare different initiation from A to Y. The initiatio…

Modula 2 Computer Programming Language

Modula 2 Computer Programming Language


Modula 2 Computer Programming Language - Modula 2 is a procedural programming language which is flexible for programming with variety of application. It was designed similar to pascal removing some elements and syntax and inheriting module concept. Modula 2 was developed by Niklaus Wirth between 1977 to 1985 at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. The main concepts which are embedded in Modula 2 was Separate compilation, Concurrent Processes and easily accessing machine specific data. Modula 2 was designed based on Pascal and Modula but most important among them is coroutines, Low level features and syntactic features.


What are the features of Modula 2 Language?



It consists of Module, which express the relations between major parts of programs and provide support for abstract data types.

Coroutines – It will provided concurrency without the overhead of large OS.

Low level features – It consists of small language which are executed on any m…

PERL Programming Language Features

PERL Programming Language Features


PERL Programming Language Features - Perl is a general-purpose, HLL programming language originally developed for text manipulation and used as various tasks like system administration, web development, network programming, games, bioinformatics, and GUI development. The Camelia si the logo of Perl 6 Project. Perl comes under the family of dynamic, interpreted, high level, general purpose programming language. The full form of Perl is Practical Extraction and Reporting language. It was developed in 1987 by Larry Wall as a Unix Scripting language. Perl language inherits features from other programming language including C, Shell Script (Sh), AWK and sed. Perl 5 & Perl 6 are the popular version of Perl language.


Some facts about Perl 5 -


Perl 5 was released on October 17, 1994. Perl 5 gained popularity throughout the world in late 1990s as a CGI Scripting Language. Perl 5 was used for Network programming, finance, bioinformatics, system admins and oth…

Visual Basic Programming language

Visual Basic Programming language


Visual Basic Programming language - VB or Visual Basic is a programming language which provide Graphical User Interface (GUI) environment to choose and modify preselection sections of code written in BASIC programming language. It is the third generation programming language containing integrated development environment (IDE). Visual Basic was developed by Microsoft, where drag and drop design for the user interface was created by Alan Cooper. In Visual Basic Programmer can create both simple and complex GUI Applications. John Kemeny and Thomas Kurts invented the basic version of Visual Basic that is known as BASIC. In Visual Basic users can drag and drop visual elements like buttons, forms, windows and afterwards creating events and triggers for these elements. Visual Basic 6 is popular among the list containing Event driven properties.

Which Program can be created using Visual Basic 6?


The Visual basic Programming language is used to create many progra…

C Sharp (C#) Programming Language

C Sharp (C#) Programming Language


C Sharp (C#) Programming Language - C# or C Sharp is a programming language known as hybrid of C and C++ language. It is a multi-paradigm programming language supports the concept of encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism. It simplifies some of the complexities in C++ and provides features such as nullable value types, enumerations, delegates and direct memory access, which are not found in Java. C# was created as an object-oriented programming (OOP) language. The syntax of C# is mostly expressive making it simple and easy to learn. It was designed and developed by Microsoft. It comes under the family of C language. It was created by a team headed by Anders Hejlsberg. The syntax used in C# is similar to C-style languages like C, C++ and Java. C# language contains advance features respect to C and C++ like Boolean data variables (bool), Use of Garbage collector which manages inaccessible object memory.


Which is the most recent version of C#?


The most…

XML Extensible Markup Language

XML Extensible Markup Language


XML Extensible Markup Language - The full form of XML is Extensible Markup Language, which is a Markup language containing rules to encode documents in a format that is both Human & machine readable form. The file extension for XML is ".xml". The primary purpose of the language is to share the data across different systems, such as the Internet. There are many languages based on XML, these are XHTML, MathML, XUL, SVG, RSS, OOXML, Open document, SOAP, SMIL and RDF. XML is also a Meta language which are used to create your own Markup languages. XML is a extensive concepts.


What are the Advantages of XML language?



Exchanging data - The data in the text document can be easily shared between any two computers.

The Content or documents can be easily updated in any text editor.

It is easy to manipulate using Programming language.

It is self-describing data. It shares data in internet.

It is easy to create a custom tag or your defined tag to describe data…

PHP Server Side Scripting language

PHP Server Side Scripting language


PHP Server Side Scripting language - PHP is a server side scripting language and a tool for making dynamic and interactive web pages. It is not only used for web development but also for general purpose programming language. PHP was designed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994 and first appeared in June 1998. PHP is a recursive acronym for "PHP: Hypertext Pre-processor". PHP is a scripting language that manipulate data usually in a database, on the server. The Scripting languages are interpreted not compiled. Some of the other scripting language are JavaScript, ASP, JSP, Perl, Python etc. The developer of PHP language is The PHP development Team, Zend Technologies. The important characteristics which exhibits in PHP language are Simplicity, Efficiency, Security, Flexibility and Familiarity.


What are Scripts?


The scripts are program written for a special run time environment that aggravate the execution of tasks that could alternatively executed by human…

SQL Structured Query Language Database Concepts

SQL Structured Query Language Database Concepts


SQL Structured Query Language Database Concepts - The full form of SQL is structured Query language which is used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS). The SQL will access and manipulate databases. The SQL became an ANSI standard in 1986 and ISO certified in 1987. There are two main advantage of SQL. Firstly, it introduced the concept of accessing many records with a single command and secondly, it eliminates the need to specify how to reach a record. SQL is based on relational algebra and tuple relational calculus.


Who Developed SQL (Structured Query language)?


The SQL was developed by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce in early 1970 at IBM. The SQL was told as SEQUEL which was used to manipulate and retrieve data stored in quasi relational database management system.


What are the functions of SQL?



It can execute queries from a database.

It can retrieve data or informatio…

HTML Web Page Basic Knowledge

HTML Web Page Basic Knowledge


HTML Web Page Basic Knowledge - The full form of HTML is Hyper Text Mark-up Language which is designed for creating web pages and many web application that will run on any web browsers. It is used for creating documents and webpages. It was designed in 1980 by Tim Berners Lee, a contractor at CERN. In 1989 Berners Lee wrote a memo proposing an internet based hypertext system. In 1991, he publicized HTML tags which was the basic of HTML Programming. HTML elements are building blocks of HTML Pages. The HTML tags are written inside the angle brackets <>. HTML is a mark-up language that any web browser use to interpret and compose text, images, and other material into visual or audible web pages.


What are HTML Tags?


HTML make use of many tags which are enclosed with the angle brackets. Like </html>, </body>. Some of the important tags are given below.



</1DOCTYPE> - This tag defined the document type and HTML versions.

<head> - This ta…

C++ Programming Language Features

C++ Programming Language Features


C++ Programming Language Features - C++ is a general-purpose object-oriented programming (OOP) language, developed by a Danish Computer Scientist Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 and is an extension of the C Programming language. The C language when inherited with Classes it is called as C++. C++ is a compiled language which can be implemented on many platforms. The object oriented programming features provide features for low level memory manipulations. It is similar to C language invented in 1970s by Dennis Ritchie, while it is a safer language than C. The main highlight of C++ is a collection of predefined classes, which are data types that can be used multiple times. The C++ language also facilitates declaration of user-defined classes. Classes can further accommodate member functions to implement important functionality. Multiple objects of a particular class can be defined to create the functions within the class.


What are the main features of C++ Langua…

JAVA Computer Programming Language

JAVA Computer Programming Language


JAVA Computer Programming Language - Java is a general purpose high level programming language that is based on Object Oriented Concepts. Java is one of the most popular languages which is widely used in every corners of the world. Duke is the mascot of Java Programming language. Java Programming language was developed by Sun Microsystems (Now called as Oracle Corporation) in 1991 by a small team of Engineers known as Green team. James Gosling was the Creator Java or say designed by him. The file name extension used in java language are .java, .class and .jar. Java is based on Class and OOPs Concept which is designed such that it allow application developers to "Write once, run anywhere" or say WORA. It was mostly popular for Client Server Web application. According to Sun Microsystems, 3 billions of electronic devices are running on Java language.


What was the Primary Goal during creation of Java Language?



The language must be Portable and ar…

LOGO Drawing Programming Language

LOGO Drawing Programming Language


LOGO Drawing Programming Language - LOGO Language was designed in 1967 by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papart and Cynthia Solomon at Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), a Cambridge, Massachusetts research firm. Logo is popularly known for its use of turtle graphics, in which commands for movement and sketching produces line graphics on screen or with a small robot called turtle. Logo programming language is so designed that it help kids to learn programming easily. Instead of learning theory or going through complicated programming structures, users can learn programming basics with simple words and directions. The logo Programming Language is also called as a dialect of Lisp, was designed as a tool for learning.


What are features of LOGO Programming language?



Most known features is the turtle, as an on screen 'cursor' that showed output from commands for movement and small pen together developing line graphics.

Interactivity – It helps out the programmer …

LISP List Processing Programming Language

LISP List Processing Programming Language


LISP List Processing Programming Language - LISP is a general purpose programming language accommodating powerful facilities for Symbol Manipulation. The LISP takes its name from "LIST Processor". Symbol Manipulation is something which is similar as working with words and sentences. Lisp is a family of computer programming language, which was designed in 1960 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The Language was developed by Steve Russell, Timothy P Hart and Mike Levin. McCarthy published its design in a paper in communications of the ACM in 1960. Lisp is the second oldest High level Programming Language after FORTRAN. Many of the concepts are incorporated in Computer Science like Tree data structure, automatic storage management, dynamic typing, higher order functions, recursion etc.


What are the Application areas of LISP Programming?



It is used in AutoCAD application

It is used in Igor Engraver

It is used…

FORTRAN Formula Translation Programming Language

FORTRAN Formula Translation Programming Language


FORTRAN Formula Translation Programming Language - FORTRAN is abbreviated as FORmula TRANslation, is one of the oldest programming language developed by a team of programmers at IBM led by John Backups and was published on 1957. It was developed keeping in mind the suitability of numeric computations and scientific computing. It is the popular high performance computing program that benchmark and being used in world fastest supercomputer.


The published versions of Fortran contains some special features like FORTRAN 77 contains - Structured programming and processing of character based data; FORTRAN 90 contains - Array programming, modular programming and generic programming; FORTRAN 95 contains – high performance Fortran; FORTRAN 2003 contains – Object Oriented Programming features; FORTRAN 2003 contains – Concurrent Programming. The language was widely adopted by scientists for writing mathematical intensive programs, encouraging compile…

BASIC Language Features & Application Areas

BASIC Language Features & Application Areas


BASIC Language Features & Application Areas - BASIC language is abbreviated as Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, which is the Simplest high level programming language developed for ease of use. The language used in BASIC is simple English, which can be programmed by anyone. In 1964, John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz designed the BASIC language at Dartmouth College in the U.S. state of New Hampshire. BASIC language is widely used because it can be learned quickly and it support most of the operating systems.


The Syntax of BASIC Languages uses typical Basic keywords



Data Manipulation – LET, DATA

Program flow control – If – Then – Else; for…. to ….Next; While …..Wend, Repeat ……Until, Do ….loop, GOTO

Input and Output – LIST, PRINT, INPUT, TAB

List of Functions – ABS, ATN, COS, INT, LOG, SIN, SQR



The BASIC Programming uses some of the features of FORTRAN II and ALGOL 60 like Time Sharing concepts. It was intended specially for no…

ALGOL Algorithmic Computer Programming Language

ALGOL Algorithmic Computer Programming Language


ALGOL Algorithmic Computer Programming Language - ALGOL is abbreviated as Algorithmic Programming Langauge. ALGOL programming language is one of the high level programming language which is designed for scientific computations. ALGOL was used mostly by research computer scientists in the United States and in Europe ALGOL was the second generation programming language which consider data structure which are the close concept used in first generation structures. It was developed in the mid -1950s, which influence many other programming language. ALGOL programming language was designed by an international committee of Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) led by Alan J. Perlis of Carnegie Mellon University, during 1958–60 for publishing algorithms as well as for doing computations in block structure.


Some of the ALGOL characteristics are –



Dynamic arrays – The range is specified by variable so that the size of the array is set during time s…