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PROLOG Programming Logic Declarative Program

PROLOG Programming Logic Declarative Program


PROLOG Programming Logic Declarative ProgramDefinition – PROLOG is abbreviated as Programming Logic which is a declarative language consisting of sequence of commands and logical formulas. PROLOG is associated with artificial Intelligence and computational Linguistics. PROLOG is a High level programming language entirely based on formal logic, sequences of commands for solving logical formulas. Prolog language are smaller which encourages well written code and easy to maintain. Visual Prolog 7.5 is the newest generation of the visual Prolog logical programming language that might be used for designing industrial strength applications for the Microsoft Windows. The artificial intelligence use two programming languages, LISP and PROLOG. The PROLOG program consists of three parameters during programming.



  1. Declaration of the facts of the relations involved.

  2. Declaration of rules concerning relations.

  3. Formulation of questions to be answered.



Characteristics of PROLOG Language


The main characteristics which resembles in Programming Logic (PROLOG) are –



  1. Fully Object Oriented language

  2. Based on Logical Programming with Horn clauses

  3. Strongly typed object oriented programming language

  4. Object Predicate values

  5. Algebraic data types involved

  6. Fully integrated fact database systems

  7. Pattern matching and unification systems

  8. Controlled non-determination Systems

  9. supports direct calling of Win32 API functions

  10. supports direct linkage with C/C++

  11. automatic memory management

  12. supports parametric polymorphism



The Prolog Programming language is extensively used for Theorem Proving, Expert Systems, Term rewriting, type inference and Automated Planning. Prolog is well-designed for specific tasks that benefit from rule-based logical queries such as filling templates, searching databases and voice control systems. PROLOG is very different from other programming languages in terms of Declarative (not procedural), Recursion (no "for" or "while" loops), Relations (no functions) and Unification.


History of PROLOG – Programming Logic


In 1972 – First Prolog interpreter was designed by Alain Colmerauer and Philippe Roussel.


In 1977 – Implementation of DEC 10 Compiler was done by David H.D. Warren.

In 1980 – The definite Clause Grammer implementation was given by Pereira and Warren.

In 1980 to 1990 – Prolog became popular especially in Japan and Europe.

In 2005 - Prolog used to program natural language interface in International Space Station by NASA. In 2011 – IBM Watson QA Super computer was coded in Prolog.


PROLOG Implementation


There are several PROLOG environments which are available and widely used today are –



  1. SWI Prolog

  2. SICStus Prolog

  3. GNU Prolog

  4. YAP Prolog

  5. Strawberry Prolog



Prolog terms are the basis elements which rules during programming. It is divided into two sections namely – Simple terms and Complex terms. The simple terms is further divided into Constants and Variables. The Constants are now divided into Atoms and Numbers. This is short description regarding PROLOG Programming Logic Declarative Program, in next topic we will discuss about new high level programming languages.



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