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Low Level Programming Language Basic Concepts

Low Level Programming Language Basic Concepts

Low Level Programming Language Basic Concepts - It is a programming language which provide little or no abstraction from computer commands or functions closely related to processors instructions. It can be converted to machine code without the use of Compiler or Interpreter. The low level programming language deals with the computer hardware components and constraints. It is referred to be computers Native language. The low level language is designed in such a way that it can operate and handle all hardware and instructions set architecture of a computer. Programs which are written in low-level language are directly executable by computer processor without the help of interpreter or Compiler. The examples of Low level language are Assembly language and Machine language.

What are the basic properties of low level language?

Some of the important characteristic or properties which are included in Low level language are –


Low level language are ea…

Semi Conductor Material Properties

Semi Conductor Material Properties

Semi Conductor MaterialProperties - A semiconductor is a substance, generally a solid chemical element or compound which conduct electricity under certain conditions, making it a good medium for electrical current under controlled situation. Its conduction existence depends upon the current or voltage threshold at which it works like a conductor. Until threshold value is reached it behave like an insulator. So we can say it falls between the properties of insulator and conductor.

A semiconductor is a material that has unique property while reacting at presence of electrical current. It is a material that has lower resistance to the flow of electrical current in one direction than in another. The electrical conductivity of a semiconductor exists between a good conductor (like copper) and an insulator (like rubber). This is the reason its name is such like semi-conductor. A semiconductor is a material whose electrical conductivity can be changed by apply…

Solaris Operating System Features

Solaris Operating System Features


Solaris Operating System Features - Solaris is a Unix Operating system developed by Sun Microsystems. The Sun Microsystems are now acquired by Oracle Corporation. It was founded in 1982 by Bill Joy. The Solaris was famous for its features like Scalability, Dtrace, ZFS and Time Slider. The Solaris Operating system is written in C, C++. Earlier Solaris was developed as proprietary software. Solaris Software is a perfect platform for network computing developed by Sun microsystems. Solaris OS enables the ability to support multiple-terabyte data warehouses and millions of users.


History of Solaris Operating System


The earlier operating system of Sun Microsystems was called SunOS. In 1980s Sun introduced a Chip called RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) resulted the scalable processor Architecture (SPARC) processor. The SPARC processor chip allowed Sun Microsystem to develop very powerful, reliable and inexpensive desktop workstations. In the late 1980 S…

Virtual Reality Environment Concepts

Virtual Reality Environment Concepts


Virtual Reality Environment Concepts - Virtual reality is an artificial environment which are created with the help of software and presented before the user in such a way that he/she believes it as a real environment. Virtual reality is experienced through two senses: sight and sound. The definition of virtual reality comes from the definitions of both virtual and reality. The definition of virtual is near and reality is what we experience as true. Hence the term virtual reality means near-reality. Virtual reality has application in many area, some of them are given below -



The simulation of a real entity for training and education.

The development of an environment suitable for game or interactive stories of children.

Scientific Visualization

Medicine

Industrial design

Architecture

Games and Entertainment



Virtual reality means experiencing things by our computers that doesn't exist. An interactive 3D computer-created environment, while exploring belie…

What is Software Testing Methods?

What is Software Testing Methods?


Software Testing or What is Software Testing Methods?  - The software testing is a process of executing the software in order to check the quality it exhibits under test. It is also stated as the process of executing a program with the intention of finding the software bugs or errors. Whether it is error free or not? The software testing is done in order to check whether the program follow all the properties which it must contain as per order. The major objectives of Software testing it to find defects which may get created by the programmer while developing the software program. It must contain certain properties and guidelines which are given below.



It meet the requirement of design and development.

It should be sufficiently usable.

It must perform all its functions in acceptable time period.

It must respond correctly while inserting any kinds of input by the user.

It can be installed and run on predefined environment.

It must be user friendly.

It exhibit p…

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)


TCP/IP Model or Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - The TCP/IP Model divides networking functions into discrete layers. In this model each layer does a specific function and is transparent to the layer above it and the layer below it. The primary function of TCP/IP model is to conceptualize how network should work, so that hardware and network protocols can communicate in fluent way. The TCP/IP model is one of the best conceptual model after the OSI Model. In this model the subsequent layers which are used to describe and illustrate TCP/IP is given below.



Link – It is required to deliver data across a physical network.

Internet – It is for the logical transmission of packets across the network.

Transport – It provide rules for establishing level of transmission service for applications. It is responsible for reliable transmission of data and delivery of packets error free.

Application – It provide rules for…

What is Structured Programming Language

What is Structured Programming Language


Definition - It is a programming method which aimed at improving quality, clarity and access time of computer program by the use of block structures, subroutines, for and while loops. This programming features will be helpful when concept of exception handing is needed in the program. It uses various control structures, sub routines, blocks and theorem. The theorems involved in structure programming are Sequence, Selection, Iteration and Recursion. Most of the programming language uses structured programming language features such as ALGOL, Pascal, PL/I, Ada, C, etc. The structure programming enforces a logical structure on the program being written to make it more efficient and easy to modify and understand. What is Structured Programming Language is explained in simple and precise manner.


Why C – Language is called as Structured Programming language?


In order to accomplish any task, C-language divide the problem into smaller modules called functi…

Parallel Computing Environment

Parallel Computing Environment


Definition of Parallel Computing Environment – Parallel Computing is a computing environment in which many calculation or execution of processes are carried out simultaneously. It is a type computing architecture in which several processors execute or process an application or computation simultaneously. In this system large problems can be divided into smaller ones which can then be solved at the same time. Alternatively, a parallel computing is the simultaneous use of multiple computer resources to solve a computational problem. Parallel computing can be classified into bit-level, instructional level, data and task parallelism.


What are the steps followed in Parallel Computing Environment?



The large problem can be broken down into discrete parts which are solved concurrently.

Each part is further broken down into series of instructions.

The instructions from distinct part are executed simultaneously on different processors.

The control and coordination of la…

Object Oriented Programming Language

Object Oriented Programming Language


Definition of Object Oriented Programming Language – It is the Programming language which is based on the concept of objects that contains the data in the form of fields. The data contains different attributes which is the major events of OOP. The concept of OOP is inherited in C++ and Java. The basic concepts of OOP is based on different features which are given below –


What are the terms used in Object Oriented Programming Language


Inheritance: It is a feature that represents the relationship which are inherit from the existing ones.


Interface: the languages and codes that the program used for communication between them and with the hardware.


Messaging: It is a form of interchange used in parallel programming and object-oriented programming.


Object: It is a self-contained entity that consists of both data and procedures to manipulate within the program.


Polymorphism: It is the property to process objects differently which depends on their data type or c…

Server Operating System Environment

Server Operating System Environment


Definition of Server Operating System Environment : The operating system which is designed to run on Server Computer and contribute specialised features on Client Server Architecture are called as Server Operating System or Server OS. The Server Operating System embedded with multi networking features serve the request from client computer connected on network. The Server OS facilitates and enable features such as Web server, Mail Server, File server, Application server, data base server and Print server. Server Operating System Environment.


What are the features of Server Operating System (Server OS)?


There are various features which are facilitated while interconnection between Client and Server Computer on physical network. Some of the features are given below. These feature are seen or observed in Client Server Model or architecture.



Execution of all or most processes from Operating System commands.

Ability of Client Computer to access the server bot…

Memory Management Basic Concepts

Memory Management Basic Concepts


Definition of Memory Management Basic Concepts -  Memory management deals with the processes and methodologies for the effective use, allocation, monitoring & management of computer memory. It provide ways to dynamically allocate parts of memory to processes at their and free it for reuse when no longer needed. Various methods are devised to increase the effectiveness of memory management. The related terms which help in memory management process are given below.


What are the different types of Memory Management?


Segmentation – The division of computer primary memory into segments or sections are called as Segmentation. The segments is the divisions of a program such as individual routines or data tables. Each segment has a length and set of permissions linked with it. The segment is also used to implement virtual memory concepts. The segmentation should be implemented on several different ways depending on hardware. There are primary two methods for …

File Management System Basic Concepts

File Management System Basic Concepts


Definition of File Management System Basic Concepts - A file management system is a type of software that manages data files and folders in a computer system. It has capabilities to designed, manage individual or group files, such as office documents, employee profile, videos, audios and records. A file management system is also known as a file manager.
The system by which an operating system or program organize and keep track of files and folders.


What are the Characteristics of File Management System?


The file management system must contain some necessary features in order to maintain files and folder. These features are ---



User Management

Encryption

Compliance

Update and Maintenance

File Life Cycle Management



What is File Manager?


The computer program which provide easy and efficient user interface to manage files and folders stored in hard drive on computer machine is called as File Manager. The common operations which can be performed on these files an…

Compiler Design & Construction Basic Concepts

Compiler Design & Construction Basic Concepts


Definition of Compiler Design & Construction Basic Concepts – A compiler is a computer program which is used to convert high level language (Source code) into another program (target code), which are easily executable by computer machine. The target code is in the binary form which is executable by CPU of a Computer System. Alternatively, the compiler is designed to convert High level language into low level language (e.g. Assembly language or machine code). The conversion is required because the HLL language is not understandable or executable by computer operating system or CPU. The CPU processor only execute machine language code or binary codes. The compiler can also translate the high level source programs into target program in machine language for the specific hardware.


What is Cross Compiler?


The compiler that runs on one computer but produces object code for a different type of computer. Since the compiler program is working …

Automata Theory Abstract Computing Concepts

Automata Theory Abstract Computing Concepts


Definition of Automata Theory Abstract Computing Concepts - The automata theory is a branch of Computer Science which relates the study of Abstract Computing devices or machine. Alternatively automata deals with the logic of computations with respect to simple machines. The automata play a vital role in theory of computation, compiler construction, parsing, artificial intelligence and format verification.


What is Automaton?


The abstract model of machine that perform computations on an input by moving through a series of states and configuration is known as Automatons. This automation consists of states and transitions. The automation is supposed to run on some given sequence of inputs in discrete time frames. The major goal of automata theory is to develop methods by which computer technocrats or scientists can describe and analyse the dynamic behaviour of discrete systems. The major characteristics/ terms of these machines contains – Inputs, O…

Artificial Neural Network Basic Concepts

Artificial Neural Network Basic Concepts


Definition ofArtificial Neural Network Basic Concepts - An artificial neuron network (ANN) is a computing System model based on the structure and functions of biological neural networks. The system learn to do tasks without specific programming. The ANN is a collection or group of interconnected units called Artificial Neurons. The neurons are organised in layers. Each interconnection between neurons transmit a unidirectional signal with strength. If the combined incoming signals are strong, the receiving end neuron activate and propagate signal to the downstream neurons interconnected to it. The main moto of the neural network approach is to solve problems as human brain can do.


The inventor of the first neurocomputer was Dr. Robert Hecht-Nielsen, according to him "a computing system made up of a number of simple, highly interconnected processing elements, which process information by their dynamic state response to external inputs".


Ty…

DBMS Database Management System

DBMS Database Management System


Definition of DBMS Database Management System - A Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection of Programs that enable user to store, modify, and extract data or information from a large or small database. The data base management systems are used in small personal computers to huge mainframe computers. DBMS is an intermediate layer between programs and the data. Programs access the DBMS, which then accesses the data. A database management system is a piece of software/ program that enable you to accessing a database, while maintaining all the essential features of the data. The Commercially available DBMS in the market are dbase, MySQL, SQL Servers, FoxPro, IMS and Oracle and DB2 etc.


Some of the important examples of DBMS applications are



Computerized library systems

Flight reservation systems

Computerised inventory machines

Automated teller machines

Railway reservation systems



Major Components involved in DBMS Environment


There are five major component…

PROLOG Programming Logic Declarative Program

PROLOG Programming Logic Declarative Program


Definition – PROLOG is abbreviated as Programming Logic which is a declarative language consisting of sequence of commands and logical formulas. PROLOG is associated with artificial Intelligence and computational Linguistics. PROLOG is a High level programming language entirely based on formal logic, sequences of commands for solving logical formulas. Prolog language are smaller which encourages well written code and easy to maintain. Visual Prolog 7.5 is the newest generation of the visual Prolog logical programming language that might be used for designing industrial strength applications for the Microsoft Windows. The artificial intelligence use two programming languages, LISP and PROLOG. The PROLOG program consists of three parameters during programming.



Declaration of the facts of the relations involved.

Declaration of rules concerning relations.

Formulation of questions to be answered.



Characteristics of PROLOG Language


The main characteris…

Electronic Games Handheld Device

Electronic Games Handheld Device


Definition of Electronic Games Handheld Device– An electronic game is an electronic interactive program which respond to users instruction by hand held devices, Pin ball, slot machine etc. Today Video games is very popular among children's. Children spends hour in playing video games. A video game is a game that comprises interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. The other electronic game are Pinball, slot machine or arcade games. Today electronic games are in the form of Standalone systems or non-visual products.


Types of Electronic Games:




Teletype Games – It is the earliest form of computer game which uses only text nor video. Teletype games does not have video display screens and present the game to the player by printing a series of characters on paper which the player reads as it appears.

Some of the examples of Tele type games are –


The Oregon Trail

Trek 73

Dungeon

Zork

Adventure




Electronic handhelds – It is also …

Turing Test Check Machine Intelligence

Turing Test Check Machine Intelligence


Definition: Turing Test Check Machine Intelligence - Turing test is a measure of determining whether a machine has human like Intelligence, or ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour in machine. The concept of Turing test was proposed by English mathematician Alan Turing in 1950. Turing test suggest to develop conversation between human and machine and designed to generate human like responses. The test was proved to be highly influential and criticism. The concept became the base of artificial Intelligence. From the invention of abacus to the supercomputer, the high reach of technology is seen in every aspects of life around us. We developed language processors that can translate one language to other within very less time; Room served robots that can clean an entire home in minutes; Today robots that create retirement portfolios. Technological experts always strive to give best from previous technological inventions. Turing Test Check Machine I…

Deadlock Ceases Computer Operation

Deadlock Ceases Computer Operation


Definition of Deadlock Ceases Computer Operation - A deadlock is a condition in which two computer programs sharing the same resource are effectively preventing each other from accessing the resource, resulting in ceasing the computer operation. In earlier times the computer processes only one program at a time. But in modern times, the technology upgrade the processor to yield a multiprogramming features. It results in both the processes hanging. It commonly occurs in computers having multitasking and client-server environments. It is also called as Deadly embrace.


What are the conditions which results in deadlock?



Mutual exclusion – When only one process can use the computer resources at a given instant of time. The resources here is unsharable. This is the one case/ situation which gave birth to problem called deadlock.

Hold and wait or resource holding – In this situation a process is currently holding at least one resource and requesting additional …

Data Structure Applied Areas on Computer

Data Structure Applied Areas on Computer


Definition of Data Structure Applied Areas on Computer - A data structure is a way of organizing data that not only store data Items, but also establish relationship among each other. Deep knowledge regarding the relationship between data items allows designing of efficient algorithms for the manipulation of data items. They are designed to organize data to suit specific purpose such that it can be accessed and operate in appropriate manner. The efficiency to store, access and process data in excellent manner gave rise to the concept of data structure. Alternatively data structure is a way of organising data in computer so that it can be used efficiently.



What are the Types of Data Structure?


There are generally two types of data structure. They are built in data Structure and User defined Data structure.


Built In Data Structure – Integer, float, Pointer, Char etc.


User Defined data Structure – Graphs, Tree, Array, Stack, Queue etc.


In which areas Da…

Microsoft Office Word Excel Access Power Point Application

Microsoft Office Word Excel Access Power Point Application


Microsoft Office Word Excel Access Power Point Application - Microsoft Office is an Office Suite developed by Microsoft Company which consists of creative, designing and service application like Work, Excel, Access, PowerPoint etc. On 1st August 1988, Bill Gates announced MS Office at Comdex in Las Vegas. Microsoft developed various versions of Microsoft Office, the current version which is used on several computers are Office 2016. The first version of MS Office contain only MS word, MS Excel and MS PowerPoint. The different versions of MS Office was developed for needs of different end users and computing environment. Microsoft has also developed free Office tool for mobile users.


What are the main Components of Microsoft Office?




Desktop Apps

The desktop users experience many MS office products which help them out for writing letter, creating a project, calculation sheet and many other works. The products which are embedded in M…