4 D Four Dimensional Printing Technology
4 D Four Dimensional Printing Technology – It is the type of printing whose properties advances the technique used in 3D Printing. It uses the same technique of 3D printing with advance properties of Bio printing, active origami or shape-morphing systems. 4D printing is originally based on stereolithographic, where ultraviolet light is used to cure the layered materials after the printing process has been completed. 4D printing is a relatively new advance technology in bio fabrication technology, which rapidly emerging as a new ideas for sectors like bioengineering, materials science, chemistry and computer sciences. The objective is that objects made self-assemble when being exposed to air, heat or water, this is caused by a chemical reaction due to the materials utilised in the manufacturing process.
What are the Techniques used in 4D Printing?
- Photo polymerization – it is used to bind substrate that has been laid layer upon layer creating a polymeric network.
- Fibre networks – In order to achieve scale design it uses complex molecular/fiber simulations that aggregate the material properties of the substance. This is helpful to accommodate size, shape, modulus and pattern of the material building blocks.
- Stress Relaxation – it is the process in which the material is kept in stress that is stored temporarily and later released causing a overall material shape change.
What are the application areas of 4D Printings?
- Transportation – It is helpful in self-healing the potholes on roads.
- Home appliances application areas – assemble of plastic items.
- Health – Possibly insert implants in to human body, which self-deform to a plan when inserted with surgical interventions; stem cells to print slices of liver and other organs.
- Food – 4D printing in various ways will be helpful in no of techniques.
- Clothing – helpful for military wear cloths which accommodate itself from external atmospheric conditions.
- Architecture application areas.